Monday, July 25, 2016


Obscurity of the Day: Clyde

Once upon a time there were two brothers. They both had enormous heads and doughy round bodies, which suited them just fine. Both brothers were brought up to be faultlessly cheery, to always look on the bright side of life, and to turn the other cheek. Sadly, the world took advantage of their positive attitudes and seemed to throw an endless series of obstacles, pointless meanness, odd events, and just plain bad luck in their way. It was very hard for the brothers, but they persevered.

The older brother, named Clyde, was ten years the senior. When he was old enough to fend for himself in the world, he got a job at the Times-Mirror Syndicate through his good friend, cartoonist Bill Brewer. The syndicate welcomed Clyde with open arms, because Brewer told them of his strangely uncharmed life, and Brewer promised to chronicle his misfortunes in a daily comic strip. This may seem a bit mercenary, but the syndicate and Bill Brewer knew that Clyde couldn't get any other sort of work, and they felt that he was entitled to at least make a living from his strange life.

But Clyde's bad luck spilled over into his job. After his debut on the comics page on April 3 1961, it became evident that the story of his life was just not the fodder for a successful comic strip, at least in the opinions of the nation's newspaper editors. Thus, in yet another cruel turn for Clyde, his strip was cancelled after little more than three months, nowhere near enough time to find an audience. The strip came to an end on July 24.

Despite his upbringing to have a relentlessly positive attitude, Clyde could not take this last horrific turn of events. He disappeared and was never heard from again. Some say he drank himself to death, others say he became a hermit in the Himalayas.

No matter what became of him, one thing is certain. He left his little brother alone to fend for himself. But that little brother of his had an even sunnier disposition than Clyde, and he refused to say die in the face of everything that happened to him.

Ten years after Clyde disappeared the climate of the country was different -- much less buttoned-down and more open-minded. People were now better able to sympathize with a doughy little unlucky fellow with a massive head. When, strangely enough, another cartoonist came into the picture, the two got together and decided to try the same thing that Clyde and Bill Brewer attempted a decade earlier. And lo and behold, they were right that a new day had dawned, and the strip was a huge success! Although Clyde's younger brother was still beset with an awfully unlucky life, he did so with millions of people watching him, feeling sorry for him, and making him very wealthy.

But there is one thing that younger brother cannot stand, and that's to talk about his beloved and much-missed brother Clyde. And that's why in little brother Ziggy's comic strip you will never ever hear Clyde's name mentioned.


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Saturday, July 23, 2016


Herriman Saturday

December 2 1908 -- Herriman visits the horse racing out in Arcadia, the original Santa Anita race track, and caricatures some of the leading lights.


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Friday, July 22, 2016


History of Newspaper Syndicates by Elmo Scott Watson: Chapter 10, Bibliography & Appendix


The Newspaper Syndicate in American Journalism

The newspaper has been an American institution for 230 years. The syndicate, as a distinct enterprise, has a history of only 70 years.

Approximately 5,000 newspapers were being published in the United States when the syndicate idea became a reality in 1865. Their combined circulation was nearly 17,000,000. Today, a total of 13,700 newspapers, have an estimated circulation of almost 74,000,000.

In 1865 three small syndicates were in operation. They supplied only a limited amount of material, consisting mainly of news items, a story and miscellaneous matter which was little more than "filler." Today 130-odd syndicates offer the publisher more than 1,600 separate features which cover a wide range of topics and appeal to every interest of the newspaper reading public.

During the first 150 years of American journalism both the numbers of newspapers and their circulation gained slowly. But during the last 70 years there was a rapid increase in both, and in that increase the use of syndicated material played an important role. It reduced the cost of producing a newspaper and that encouraged the founding of new publications. The information, but more particularly the entertainment, which syndicated features afforded newspaper readers was a factor in increasing circulation during the early history of the enterprise and it is an even more important factor today.

The first great increase in the number of newspapers came in the decade from 1870 to 1880. In those ten years 5,484 new papers were started, three times as many as in the previous decade. The increase was particularly noticeable in the south and in the west.

It was the era of Reconstruction in the south. Thither northern "carpetbaggers" flocked to occupy public offices and to loot public treasuries. To sustain their corrupt administrations, it was necessary to establish a party press. So innumerable political organs sprang up overnight and were heavily subsidized from public funds.

Then, too, some of the more intelligent negroes, rejoicing in being freed men, expressed their consciousness of the altered status of their race by establishing newspapers to circulate among their people. The use of syndicated service in the form of readyprint was a convenient aid to issuing imposing-looking publications. Although such sheets could scarcely be dignified with the title of "newspaper," yet they did help swell the number of weeklies and were taken into account in the statistical data of the period.

The great increase in the number of newspapers in which syndicate service played a part, however, was in the west. The trans-Mississippi empire was rapidly opening up to settlement. "Boom towns," built along the route of proposed railroads, dotted the map. Local pride in these communities demanded that they have newspapers to cater to the optimistic belief of their citizens that their mushroom village would grow into a metropolis. So one of its first business establishments was invariably a newspaper office.

Sometimes this office was only a tent pitched along the main street which wandered crookedly through the collection of "soddies," log huts or one-story frame "false-fronts." In this canvas shelter the adventuring editor, equipped with an old Army press or a "G. Wash." and the traditional "shirttail-full of type," began operations as an exponent of frontier journalism. If the final railroad surveys revealed the fact that this future metropolis would not be on its route, "ye ed," like the other businessmen, loaded his equipment in a wagon and drove away to a new town site along the railroad right-of-way.

To such pioneering and peripatetic journalism, the readyprint was an invaluable aid and it was a life-saver to more than one publisher, struggling under the handicaps of inadequate equipment and an uncertain future. If he had had to depend upon local news and advertisements to fill his paper, it would have been little more than a two-page handbill. But with two, four, six and eight-page ready-prints available, he could get out a newspaper whose size suggested that it was published in a flourishing little city.

So the pioneer form of syndicate service helped to bring into existence hundreds of newspapers on the western frontier and the convenience and economy of the service encouraged the establishment of many new publications in the more settled parts of the east, south and middle west. In fact, the increasing number of weeklies during this period, made possible by syndicate service, resulted in an ominous prediction for the future of the country press by the editor of the Cleveland Herald. Declaring that rural journalism was deteriorating and laying the fault at the door of syndicate service the Herald said:

The "patent insides" and "patent outsides" have damaged it seriously by coaxing into feeble life a host of little rivals published in the smaller towns. Formerly in counties like Lake, Geauga, Portage, Summit and Trumbull there were but two papers—one of each party and sometimes a minority party failed to sustain an organ. Now, the small cost of issuing a paper on a "patent inside" or "outside" has encouraged the starting of new sheets at almost every petty village. Of course, they divide the total business of the county and draw away a part of the support of the older and larger journals.

They are a tax to the communities where they are published, but they gratify local pride, and if people choose to sustain them, nobody, least of all their hard-working and poorly paid publishers, ought to be blamed. No one can be fairly censured on their account. But the editors of the old reliable weeklies at the county seats or at the other large towns find their subscription lists shortened and their receipts from job printing greatly diminished because of them. They cut down expenses, discharge their local editors, get discouraged and relax that eternal vigilance which is the price of a good newspaper.

Immediately the editor of a country weekly, the Ravenna (Ohio) Republican Democrat, took up the cause of his brethren and declared that the competition of the city newspapers was the real cause of any definite decline in the country press because the city papers, with their big weekly editions made up from type saved from their daily editions, gave more reading matter than the country papers could hope to do. He continued:

The country weekly is irretrievably dwarfed. It has not the capital nor the power to cope with the strong financial newspaper printing combinations and corporations of the city. We have sometimes thought that but for the cooperative plan of publishing, the city weeklies would nearly, if not quite, root out the country weeklies—as it is, the latter have but comparatively a feeble, sickly existence and a hard struggle for life.

The editor of the Geauga (Ohio) Republican next took issue with his big city neighbor. He declared that the country press was improving rather than deteriorating and that syndicate service was the instrument by which this improvement was being accomplished. He said:

True, there may be more weak and half-supported sheets in existence now than formerly, as the whole number of all descriptions is increased, but the old-established ones have not only maintained their superiority but as a rule have been enlarged and otherwise improved. To prevent injurious competition from small papers printed on the so-called "patent" plan, their obvious policy is to adopt that plan, and thus secure its manifest advantages to themselves and they need sacrifice neither independence, pride nor originality in so doing.

The time has gone by, if there ever was such a time, when any considerable number of people would support the country paper merely for a sense of duty. It must be made self-sustaining by meeting the popular demand or it will languish; and that demand is now, more than ever before, for news, and in the country press especially, for local news. It need not be, and ought not be, a mere echo of the city press. But what the country press most needs is some plan whereby, while maintaining its own special features, it can combine with these enough of the essentials of a general newspaper to enable it most successfully to bear the competition of the city press. And this end is answered in the "patent insides and outsides," now so common.

The matter in these consisting chiefly in news, markets, etc., which is nearly the same in all papers, is such as cannot be printed so fully at home and is given in addition to all the other matter of the home paper. If it be objected that it is alike in all co-operative papers, as much may be said of the same departments of the Herald and Leader and all other city papers that keep up with the times.

If, therefore, there are poor papers printed on the cooperative plan, it is justly chargeable to the home management or support and not to the plan itself, which, if improved as it might be, would open a wider field of excellence and independence to the country press than it has ever yet known. Since country papers are a necessity and since the competition of the city papers from which we suffer cannot be prevented, if we are wise we will accept the inevitable and, discarding false pride, pursue the policy which will render that competition less injurious. The cooperative plan is a move in this direction and if the standard is not yet as high as it should be, a more general adoption by the better class of country papers will as surely raise it as supply follows demand.

During the next few years the service was "improved as it might be" and the syndicates offered to the publisher, through an economical and convenient medium of supply, a variety and quality of material that he could not possibly have given his readers otherwise. The addition of the stereotype plate, while it did not help increase the number of newspapers so noticeably as had the readyprint, did extend the popularity of syndicated material and aided in its widespread use, especially in the east.

The decade from 1880 to 1890 was marked by the greatest increase in the number of newspapers American journalism has ever known. They multiplied at the rate of two new publications every day during those ten years. But more significant were the soaring circulation figures during this decade and the next. From 1880 to 1890 more than 37,000,000 Americans became newspaper subscribers, as compared to less than 11,000,000 during the previous decade, and from 1890 to 1900 another 37,000,000 were added.

The principal factors in these phenomenal gains, which was indicative of what was coming during the next half century, were a vastly increased and better educated population, improved transportation, speedier means of communication, lower postal rates and cheaper paper. The rapidly-rising tide of culture and a keener interest in public affairs, coupled with greater prosperity and more leisure (now that the nation's pioneering was virtually ended) resulted in a never-ceasing demand on the newspapers for more and more reading matter to supplement the local and telegraphic news and editorials. The syndicate was the instrument by which they were able to meet that demand. By the turn of the century it had developed the four media of service through which it was able to supply the needs of every type of newspaper, from the smallest country weekly to the largest metropolitan daily.

During the three decades of the present century each ten-year period has witnessed even more phenomenal gains in circulation. During that time the syndicates have enlarged the scope of their operations, added to the variety of their features and adapted their service readily to changing public tastes. The part which they have played in the swift increase in the number of papers and in the phenomenal increase in newspaper circulation is impossible to state exactly. But the conclusion is inescapable that they must have had a tremendously important part in both. The fact that fully 90 percent of all newspapers in the United States now use syndicate service in one form or another is the best evidence of the position the syndicates hold in American journalism today. Certainly they, with the class of reading material which they supply, have done more than any other element in journalism to make the modern American newspaper "the people's library."

Another effect of the syndicate on American journalism has been the so-called "standardization" of newspapers because their use of its material results in a certain similarity of appearance and content. With every force in American life during the last half century showing a trend away from the individual and toward the standardized, it is not so unusual that journalism should reflect this tendency in its own development.

But the syndicate has been only one of the agents of newspaper standardization. Press associations share with it the responsibility for duplication of reading matter in our daily and weekly journals. If a subscriber in Maine and another in Oregon see the same comic strip, the same health talk and the same installment of a serial story, they also read the same cable dispatches about the war clouds hovering over Europe, the same story about the latest legislation passed by the congress in Washington and the same details of the kidnaping or murder mystery currently attracting nationwide attention.

The widespread use of syndicated material has had both unfavorable and favorable effects upon American newspapers. In some cases it undoubtedly has weakened editorial initiative by encouraging the publisher to neglect adequate coverage of local news and local features. If the knowledge that he can fill up his columns with syndicated material and still issue a full-size newspaper leads him to do so, then syndicate service has been used as a harmful influence in diverting the newspaper from one of its important roles—that of being a faithful mirror of its community.

On the other hand, intelligent use of syndicate service—the blending of its material with that produced by the newspaper's staff—makes for the type of well-rounded journal of news, information and entertainment which the modern American reader has come to believe his newspaper should be. The syndicate has enabled newspapers of every class to give their readers that "balanced ration" of mental food, and, through the cheap medium of the newspaper, has brought to the masses the stimulation of reading the words of outstanding leaders of thought in the world today. That fact, perhaps, has been the syndicate's greatest contribution to American journalism.


Andreas, A. T.—"History of Chicago," A. T. Andreas Company, Chicago, 1884-86.
Bleyer, Willard Grosvenor—"Main Currents in the History of American Journalism," Houghton Mifflin Company Boston, 1927.
Bok, Edward W.—"The Americanization of Edward Bok." Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1930.
Bowers, Claude G.—"The Tragic Era," Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1929.
Cochran, N. D.—"E. W. Scripps," Harcourt-Brace, New York.
Crockett, Walter Hill.—"Vermont-The Green Mountain State," The Century Historical Company, Inc., New York, 1921.
Gardner, Gilson—"Lusty Scripps," Vanguard Press, New York.
Kellogg, Ansel N.—"Kellogg's Auxiliary Hand-Book." A. N. Kellogg Company, Chicago, 1878.
McClure, S. S.—"My Autobiography," Frederick A. Stokes Company, New York, 1914.
McRae, M. A.—"Forty Years in Newspaperdom," Brentano, New York.
O'Brien, Frank C.—"The Story of The Sun," D. Appleton and Company, New York, 1914.
Rosewater, Victor.—"History of Co-Operative News Gathering in the United States," D. Appleton and Company, New York, 1928.
Rowel], George P.—"Forty Years an Advertising Agent," Printers' Ink Publishing Company, New York, 1906.
Young, John F.—"Journalism in California," Chronicle Publishing Company, San Francisco, 1915.

Annual Directory of Features, Editor and Publisher, New York, 1935.
Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1928-1935.
Directory of Newspapers and Periodicals, N. W. Ayer and Son, Inc., Philadelphia, 1935.
Encyclopedia Americana, Americana Corporation, New York and Chicago, 1929.
International Year Book Number of Editor and Publisher, Editor and Publisher Company, New York, 1935.
National Cyclopedia of American Biography, James T. White and Company, New York, 1892.
Proceedings of the Vermont Historical Society for 1913-14, Vermont Historical Society, Montpelier, Vt.
Wisconsin Historical Collections, Wisconsin State Historical Society, Madison, Wis.


Dill, William A.—"Growth of Newspapers in the United States," Department of Journalism, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, 1928.
Watson, Elmo Scott—"History of Auxiliary Newspaper Service in the United States," Illini Publishing Company, Champaign, 111., 1923.
Bulletins and other printed matter issued by the various syndicates.


American Newspaper Reporter and Printer's Gazette, New York, 1875.
American Press, New York, various dates.
Editor and Publisher, New York, various dates.
Fourth Estate, New York, various dates.
National Printer-Journalist, Milwaukee, Wis., and Springfield, Ill., various dates.
Newsdom, New York, various dates.
The Publishers' Auxiliary, Chicago, Ill., various dates.


Adams, George Matthew, "George Matthew Adams Started Syndicate on a Shoestring," Editor and Publisher, Julv 21, 1934.
Benet, Stephen Vincent, "The Story of the United Press," Fortune, May, 1933.
Clark, Neil M., "Patterson Helps to Edit Twelve Thousand Newspapers," American Magazine, October, 1927.
McClure, S. S., "And McClure Tells How He Did It," Editor and Publisher, July 21, 1934.
McNitt, V. V., "Sam McClure Started Something," Editor and Publisher, July 21, 1934.
Waldo, Richard H., "The Genius of S. S. McClure," Editor and Publisher, July 21, 1934.
Wheeler, John N., "Selling Other Men's Brains," Saturday Evening Post, March 10, 1928.

Edson, J. M.—Unpublished "History of the A. N. Kellog Newspaper Company," Chicago, 111., circa 1890.
Account books and manuscript records of the A. N. Kellogg Newspaper Company, the Chicago Newspaper Union, the Aikens Newspaper Union, the New York Newspaper Union, the Union Printing Company, the Vicksburg Newspaper Union, the Atlanta Newspaper Union and the Western Newspaper Union.


Beals, James H., former owner of the New York Newspaper Union.
Bacheller, Irving, former owner of the Bacheller-Johnson New York Press Syndicate.
Carr, M. L., assistant editor of Newspaper Enterprise Association.
Conley, E. P., former co-owner of Associated Editors.
Connolly, J. V., president of King Features Syndicate, Inc.
Elser, Maximilian, Jr., manager of the Metropolitan Newspaper Service.
Ferril, Will C, editor of the Colorado Herald, Denver.
Fish, H. H., president of the Western Newspaper Union.
Grant, John D., managing editor of the Western Newspaper Union.
Graves, Ralph H., manager, Doubleday-Doran Syndicate.
Hallock, W. W., Eastern advertising manager of the Western Newspaper Union.
Hicks, Wilson, executive editor of the Associated Press News Feature Service.
Howard, Edward P., editor of the American Press.
Kilgallen, James L., King Features. Syndicate, Inc.
Martin, Henry P., Jr., manager of the Des Moines Register and Tribune Syndicate.
McMillen, M. H., formerly with the Kansas Newspaper Union and now manager of the Chicago office of Western Newspaper Union.
McNitt, V. V., manager of the McNaught Syndicate, Inc.
Millar, John H., former co-owner of Associated Editors.
Miller, Howard E., president of the International Syndicate.
Miner, H. W., editor of the Ledger Syndicate.
Patterson, Wright A., editor-in-chief of the Western Newspaper Union.
Slosson, Edward E., director of Science Service, Inc.
Smith, Courtland, American Press Association.
Wheeler, John N., general manager of the North American Newspaper Alliance; president of the Bell Syndicate, Inc.; Associated Newspapers and Consolidated News Features.

In addition to those listed above, the author acknowledges his indebtedness to his wife, Julia Seldomridge Watson, for her untiring assistance in the preparation of this study; to Edward C. Johnston of Western Newspaper Union, New York, Josef F. Wright of the University of Illinois and Miss Ruth Morton of Milwaukee, Wis., for aid in getting some of the pictures reproduced in the book; to Frank Schock of Western Newspaper Union, Chicago, for the loan of the Edson manuscript and of the picture of his father, James J. Schock; to Mrs. Willet Spooner of Milwaukee, Wis., for the loan of a photograph of her great-uncle, Horace E. Rublee; to Lawrence W. Murphy of the University of Illinois and Charles A. Wright of Temple university for suggesting additional source material; and to many others who have rendered minor, but nonetheless appreciated, service in the preparation of this history.


A Directory of Newspaper Syndicates in the United States (compiled from the Ayer Newspaper Directory for 1936 and Editor and Publisher International Year Book Number for 1936.)

George Matthew Adams Service, 444 Madison Ave., New York.
American Features Syndicate, 1925 E. 17th St., Brooklyn, N. Y.
American Feature Writers Syndicate, 545 Fifth Ave., New York.
American Motion Picture Review Service, 472 Russ Bldg., San Francisco, Calif.
American News Features, Inc., 420 Lexington Ave., New York.
Associated Newspapers, 247 W. 43rd St., New York.
Associated Press Feature Service, 383 Madison Ave., New York.
Associated Publishers, Inc., Republic Bldg., Louisville, Ky.
Authenticated News Service, P. O. Box 326, Hollywood, Calif.
Banner Newspaper Service, 111 Westminster St., Providence, R. I.
Bell Syndicate, Inc., 247 W. 43rd St., New York.
Better Features, Box 173, Middletown, Ohio.
Bond-Barclay Syndicate, 3160 Kensington Ave., Philadelphia.
Brookings Institution, 722 Jackson PI., Washington, D. C.
Burba Service, Box 1046, Dayton, Ohio.
Business Feature Service, Room 1140 Merchandise Mart, Chicago.
Cambridge Associates, Inc., 174 Newbury St., Boston, Mass.
Central Press Association, Inc., 235 E. 45th St., New York; 1435 E. 12th St., Cleveland, Ohio.
Joe Mitchell Chappie, Inc., 952 Dorchester Ave., Boston, Mass.
Chicago Tribune-New York News Syndicate, Inc., News Building, New York; Tribune Tower, Chicago.
Cleveland Syndicate, 10609 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, Ohio.
Grady W. Coble, P. O. Box 203, Greensboro, N. C.
Consolidated Information Service, 280 Broadway, New York.
Consolidated News Features, 280 Broadway, New York.
Continental Feature Syndicate, P. O. Box 326, Hollywood, Calif.
Courier-Journal and Times Syndicate, Times Bldg., Louisville, Ky.
Curtis Features Syndicate, 45 W. 45th St., New York.
Devil Dog Syndicate, 33 Delmonico Pl., Brooklyn, N. Y.
Dench Business Features, Ho-Ho-Kus, N. J.
Distinctive Newspaper Features, P. O. Box 65, Hamilton, Ohio.
Donner's Fashion Service, 200 W. 54th St., New York.
Doubleday-Doran Syndicate, Garden City, N. Y.
Duplex Newspaper Service Co., Inc., 41 West 45th St., New York.
Eagle Syndicate, Brooklyn Daily Eagle, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Editor's Copy, Orangeburg, S. C.
Ellis Service, Swarthmore, Pa.
Escobar Feature Syndicate, 123 East Pico, Los Angeles, Calif.
European Picture Service, 353 Fifth Ave., New York.
Fact Feature Syndicate, 649 Macon St., Brooklyn, N. Y.
Famous Features Syndicate, 230 Park Ave., New York.
Fashion Coordinator, 247 Park Ave., New York.
Feature News Service (New York Times), 229 W. 43rd St., New York.
Fine Arts Syndicate, P. O. Box 852, Chicago.
Gallup Research Service, 30 N. La Salle, Chicago.
Gilliams Service, Inc., 225 W. 39th St., New York.
Gordon Feature Syndicate, 1015 Vine St., Cincinnati, Ohio.
Gruber Service, 4 E. 53rd St., New York.
Handy Filler Service, 401 Russ Bldg., San Francisco, Calif.
Fred Harman Features, 1509 North Vine St., Hollywood, Calif.
Harper Features, P. O. Box 1016 or 1615 Royal St., Dallas, Texas.
Haskin Service, Washington, D. C.
Henle Syndicate, 2017 W. Clinch St., Knoxville, Tenn.
Hollywood Press Syndicate, 6605 Hollywood Blvd., Hollywood, Calif.
Holmes Feature Service, 135 Garrison Ave., Jersey Citv, N. J.
Hosterman Syndicate, Inc., Springfield, Ohio.
Albert Crawford Hurst Features, 2114 Westgate Drive, Houston, Texas.
Independent Syndicate, Inc., Ouray Bldg., Washington, D. C.
Inter-American Newspaper Syndicate, 31-33 E. 27th St., New York.
Intercity News Service, Bond Bldg., Washington, D. C; 63 Park Row, New York.
International Feature Service, 235 E. 45th St., New York.
International Press Bureau, 330 S. Wells St., Chicago.
International Religious News Service, 1831 Sheldon Rd. E. , Cleveland, Ohio.
International Syndicate, 1615-1617 Guilford Ave., Baltimore, Md.
Johnson Feature Service, Exchange Bldg., Memphis, Tenn.; 185 Church St., New Haven, Conn.
Jordan Syndicate, 201 Albee Bldg., Washington, D. C.
Will Judy Press Syndicate, Judy Bldg., Chicago.
Junior Feature Syndicate, 505 Fifth Ave., New York.
Kay Features, Inc., 420 Lexington Ave., New York.
King Features Syndicate, Inc., 235 E. 45th St., New York.
Arthur J. Lafave, 2042 E. 4th St., Cleveland, Ohio.
David Lawrence Syndicate, 2201 M. St., N. W., Washington, D. C.
Ledger Syndicate, Independence Square, Philadelphia, Pa.
Los Angeles Times, Times Bldg., Los Angeles.
Magazine Feature Service, Room 1140, Merchandise Mart, Chicago.
Matz Unique Service, 523 Weiser, Reading, Pa.
Maywood Syndicate, Sidney Center, N. Y.
McClure Newspaper Syndicate, 345 Hudson St., New York.
McCoy Health Service, McCoy Bldg., Los Angeles, Calif.
McNaught Syndicate, Inc., 1475 Broadway, New York.
Metropolitan Newspaper Feature Service, 220 E. 42nd St., New York.
Midland Feature Service, 35 E. Wacker Drive, Chicago.
Modern Features Syndicate, 134 W. 31st St., New York.
L. J. Mordell Newspaper Features. 420 Lexington Ave., New York.
National Feature Service, 4035 New Hampshire Ave., Washington, D. C.
National News-Feature Syndicate, 51 E. 42nd St., New York.
National Newspaper Service 326 W. Madison St., Chicago.
National News Service, Inc., 3727 N. 17th St., Philadelphia, Pa.
NEA Service, Inc., 1200 W. 3rd St., Cleveland. Ohio; 461 Eighth Ave., New York.
N. E. Newspaper Service, 755 Boylston St., Boston, Mass.
Newspaper Features, Inc., 1530 Healey Bldg., Atlanta, Ga.
Newspaper Feature Service, 235 E. 45th St., New York.
Newspaper Information Service, Inc., 1322 New York Ave., Washington, D. C.
News-Week Syndicate Service, Rockefeller Center, New York.
New York Herald Tribune Syndicate, 230 West 41st St., New York.
New York Post Syndicate, 75 West St., New York.
Nick Nichols Syndicate, Times Bldg., Chicago.
North American Newspaper Alliance, Inc., 247 W. 43rd St., New York.
Nu-Way Features, 4545 Beacon St., Chicago.
O'Connor Features Service, 472 Russ Bldg., San Francisco, Calif.
Oil Features Syndicate, P. O. Box 1880, Houston, Texas.
Outdoor World Syndicate, North Chattanooga, Tenn.
Pan-Hellenic American Foreign Press Syndicate, 1228 Park Row Bldg., New York.
Penn Feature Syndicate, 2417 N. 15th St., Philadelphia, Pa.
Premier Syndicate, 235 E. 45th St., New York.
Progressive Features, 905 North Fifth St., Springfield, Ill.
Publishers Autocaster Service, 225 W. 39th St., New York.
Publishers Financial Bureau, Babson Park, Mass.
Publishers Syndicate, 30 N. La Salle St., Chicago.
Rayburn's Odd-Way Service, Sulphur Springs, Texas.
Register & Tribune Syndicate, Des Moines, Iowa.
Albert T. Reid Syndicate, 103 Park Ave., New York.
Religious Copy Service, 2715 Overbrook Terrace, Ardmore, Pa.
Russell Service, Hartford, Conn.
Science Service, 21st and Constitution Ave., N. W., Washington, D. C.
Scriptural Research Bureau of Hollywood, 332 N. Orlando, Hollywood, Calif.
Seeba Feature Syndicate, 247 Park Ave., New York.
Service for Authors, Inc., 280 Broadway, New York.
Wm. Southern, Jr., Independence, Mo.
Standard Editorial Service, 440 Woodward Bldg., Washington, D. C.
Standard Press Association, 755 Boylston St., Boston.
Sterling Features Syndicate "Garden Gossip," 136 16th St., Denver, Colo.
W. Orton Tewson Syndicate, 420 Riverside Drive, New York.
Thomasson's Feature Service, Minneapolis, Minn.
Thompson Service, 818 Oak St., Cincinnati, Ohio.
Times Syndicate, Times Bldg., Los Angeles, Calif.
Tomkins Syndicate, Box 17, Point Loma, Calif.
Triangle Newspaper Syndicate,136 E. 64th St., New York.
Triton Syndicate, Inc., Capital National Bank Bldg., Hartford, Conn.
Ullman Feature Service, Woodward Bldg., Washington, D. C.
United Feature Syndicate, Inc., 220 East 42nd St., New York.
Universal Service, 235 E. 45th St., New York.
Christy Walsh Syndicate, 235 E. 45th St., New York.
Walters Feature Service, 320 E. 45th St., New York.
Washington Post News Service, Washington, D. C.
Watkins Syndicate, Inc., 705 Lewis Tower, Philadelphia.
W. E. Features Service, P. O. Box 326, Hollywood, Calif.
Western Newspaper LTnion, 210 S. Desplaines St., Chicago.
Woman's Page Copy, Plymouth, Ind.
World Color Printing Co., 420 De Soto Ave., St. Louis, Mo.
World Feature Service, 220 East 42nd St., New York.
World-Wide News Service, Inc., 56 Bellevue St., Newton, Mass.
Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn.
Zain Features Syndicate, Inc., Chrysler Bldg., New York.
Zak Zook Syndicate, Liverpool, Pa.


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Thursday, July 21, 2016


Obscurity of the Day: Cuppy the Newsboy

Cartoonist Joe Appalucci broke into newspaper syndication with the George Matthew Adams Syndicate in 1962 with a daily panel about a newspaper carrier. Many newspaper editors have a soft spot for features about the newspaper business, even tangentially like this, and Cuppy the Newsboy found just enough clients to get out of the gate.

The gags were frankly lukewarm and the art just so-so, but as a hole-filler in the classified section or such, it was perfectly fine. A few oddities about the art I can't help but mention. First, Appalucci's title character strikes me as looking like a paunchy senior citizen, and his girlfriend like a middle-aged hausfrau, but they were indeed supposed to be kids. Second, the unusual panel borders, which Appalucci smartly added to make his feature stand out a bit, remind me of nothing more than razor wire -- ouch!

Cuppy the Newsboy (which was advertised in E&P as Cuppy the Newspaperboy) ran from October 8 1962 until March 7 1964. Appalucci had already sold George Matthew Admas another feature, The Byrds, in 1963, and presumably it was doing well enough that Cuppy got his retirement papers.

Thanks to Mark Johnson for the samples!


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Wednesday, July 20, 2016


Ink-Slinger Profiles by Alex Jay: Sol Hess

Solomon Henry “Sol” Hess was born in Somonauk, Illinois, on October 14, 1872, according to Illinois death index at In the 1880 U.S. Federal Census, Hess was the fourth of five children born to Levi, a livestock dealer, and Henrietta (Schulheimer). His father was German and his mother Bavarian. The family resided in Northville, Illinois. Sometime after the census, Hess’s father died.

The New York Times, January 1, 1942, said “Hess’s formal education was limited to the first six years of grammar school.”

Hess’s mother was listed as a widow in the 1891 Chicago, Illinois, city directory. The family’s address was 88 Seeley Avenue. Hess has not yet been found in the 1900 census.

In 1905, Hess, Henry G. Rettig and Axel E. Madsen voted to change the name of the corporation, H.G. Rettig and Company, to Rettig, Hess & Madsen. Three consecutive notices were published in The National Corporation Reporter on June 1, 8 and 15. 

The Cook County, Illinois marriage index recorded Hess’s marriage to Mrs. Rae Hoffman on October 7, 1908. According to the 1910 census, Hess, his wife and five-year-old step-daughter, Bertha, lived in Chicago at 4911 Prairie Avenue. His occupation was watch salesman.

On September 11, 1918, Hess signed his World War I draft card which had his home address, 5430 Indiana in Chicago. Hess was the manager of the wholesale watch company, Rettig, Hess & Madsen. His description was medium height and build with brown eyes and gray hair.

Hess’s entry into comics was told in the book, I’ve Got News for You (1961) by John Wheeler and Ring Lardner.

One association that ended up profitably all around began in Stillson’s, the hangout for Chicago Tribune staffers opposite the old Tribune building in the Chicago Loop. Sol Hess was a Chicago jeweler who liked to associate with newspapermen and pay the tabs, so he was welcome. Among those he met in this rendezvous were Ring Lardner, Clare Briggs, John McCutcheon, and a struggling cartoonist, Sid Smith.…

When he met Hess, he met a fortune, for Hess had a new idea for a strip which combined continuity and humor. It was called “The Gumps” and almost immediately was a great success. Sol wrote the balloons as a labor of love and for the privilege of hanging around with the newspaper crowd….
When Smith’s contract ended with the Tribune, he got a new contract for a huge sum and a Rolls Royce. Smith offered Hess $200 a week to continue writing but Hess threatened to quit.

Hess appeared in The Gumps, January 14, 1920.

Wheeler heard about Hess’s unhappiness and explained what he did.
I heard of this situation by the grapevine, and rushed to Chicago to talk to the erstwhile ghost writer….He had in mind a strip, “The Nebbs,” which had the same pattern and his sparkling humor. We hired a young artist named Wally Carlson to do the drawing. I guaranteed Hess 60 per cent against a guarantee of $800 a week. After we had signed the contract, I didn’t know whether I had made a bad deal or not, but we had to gamble in those days….

Bridgeport Telegram 5/16/1923

American Newspaper Comics (2012) said The Nebbs began May 21, 1923. Hess wrote the Sunday toppers Dizzy Doings, from April 1936 to 1938; and Simp O’Dill, from February 24, 1929 to 1941. After Hess’s death in 1941, his daughter and son-in-law wrote the strip and the toppers, Simp O’Dill, from 1941 to 1947; and Gag Bag, from June 6, 1943 to 1949.

Ron Goulart’s The Funnies: 100 Years of American Comic Strips (1995) explained the origin of the names of the strip and main character.

“The name Nebb had been used a number of times in The Gumps,” Hess told [Martin] Sheridan. “It comes from the Jewish word ‘nebich,’ a reference of contempt for a ‘port sap.’ The name Rudy was very popular at that time, at least its distinguished owner was, so we chose the famous movie idol Valentino’s first name.” Rudy Nebb was similar in looks and attitude to Andy Gump, except he was not chinless. He had a plump, goodhearted wife named Fanny, a teenage daughter, and a preteen son called Junior….
The Nebbs was populated with people known to Hess. In the Evening Repository (Canton, Ohio), March 5, 1929, Albert M. Dueber recalled Hess’s early days in business.
…Dueber, formerly with the Dueber-Hampden company, not only knows Sol Hess and several of the characters very well, but in addition has been included in the column on several occasions as have his daughters, Josephine Dueber and Mary Jane Dueber Farrell.

“I first met Sol Hess about 30 years ago in Chicago,” Mr. Dueber relates.

“At that time he was errand boy in a jewelry store which was on my list and we became very good friends. He finally obtained his own store and was a jobber for Dueber-Hampden watches.

“Our salesman in the Chicago territory was Earl Stamm and he and Hess established a friendship. It is Earl Stamm’s son, John, who is the attorney representing Sylvia Appleby in the cartoon. The boy now is in college in Chicago.

“Practically all of Hess’ characters are from real life. He is clowning his friends in most cases and many of his pictures of them are true to life.”
Hess was a Chicago resident. The 1920 census said Hess was a wholesale jeweler who resided at 614 East 51st Street. According to the 1930 census, Hess and his wife lived in Shoreland Hotel at 5454 South Shore Drive. His occupation was cartoonist. Hess’s residence and occupation were the same in the 1940 census.

Hess passed away December 31, 1941, in Chicago, as reported the following day by the Chicago Daily Tribune.

—Alex Jay


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Tuesday, July 19, 2016


Obscurity of the Day: Elmer Squee

When Dick Brooks went into the Navy his art background came in handy when he decided he'd like to commemorate the experiences of a mild young man, having signed up for the Navy right after Pearl Harbor, goes through training and out to sea. The cartoon panel, titled Elmer Squee, found a very eager audience of landlubbers, curious about anything military, when it was published in book form by McMillan in 1942.

After the war, Dick Brooks found work in the bullpen at King Features Syndicate. When he heard that a strip was about to be dropped by the syndicate, he submitted a 'civilian-ized' Elmer Squee strip. Although the syndicates were awash in military strips trying to remain interesting to a suddenly demilitarized nation, for some reason King decided to take on Elmer Squee. It may have helped that Brooks was a very fine cartoonist, and Elmer had sort of an Archie Andrews sort of vibe -- a character who was hot in post-war comic books and in newspaper strips.

Elmer Squee debuted as a Sunday-only strip on September 8 1946, but was an utter flop in sales. I'm not sure that it ever appeared in a paper outside of the Hearst chain, and even very few of them used it. Despite the lack of sales, the strip continued until August 28 1949, quite a respectable run for an undeniable sales flop.

Although I don't recall having seen them for myself, I am told that the Elmer Squee strip eventually added  twin teenage girls as characters. These became the main characters of Brooks' next strip, which was a sales success for almost thirty years -- The Jackson Twins


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Monday, July 18, 2016


Can You ID This Mystery Artist?

I was just contacted by a researcher who is writing a book on female war correspondents of WWII. As a tangential part of that project, she is trying to identify the cartoonist/illustrator "Irwin" who provided the illustrations for some newspaper articles. I could not ID the artist for her, and now throw the matter open to you folks, the real brains of this operation.

All the illustrations are from 1943 articles syndicated by Hearst's International News Service, so I'm assuming it was someone working in their bullpen.

compare the 'Irwin' with Irwin Hasen's signature.

I don't know if we can place him on a Hearst originated project, but he was editing an army camp newspaper at the time.
but then, Fort Dix NJ was hardly far away and go-to guys would have been thin on the ground in 1943.
the style doesn't tell us yay or nay as his Green Lantern doesn't look much like his Dondi.
Hi Eddie --
I kinda felt Hasen was eliminated based on his not usually signing as "Irwin" and him being in the military at the time. But if he spent the war at Ft. Dix, he was certainly in range, as you say. And he might have been worried about signing his name while in the military -- I guess they might have looked down their noses at moonlighting. So I'm prepared to take that ID as a very distinct possibility.

As you say, Hasen was enough of a chameleon that the style difference doesn't eliminate him. In fact even these samples above are in two very different styles.

Thanks, Allan and Eddie. Looks like it is Hasen.

See his signature here, too, off of a print selling at eBay right now.

I'll keep looking for examples of his war-time work. It looks like he did do freelance work during the war, as well as work editing the Fort Dix Post.

I have an inquiry pending with Ohio's collection, which is not fully processed and may have more leads. I'll keep you posted if you are interested.

And, Allan, I replied to you by email as well.

Thanks again!
P.S. There's a great interview with Hasen (which was one reason I first thought it wasn't his work, because he doesn't mention writing for Hearst/INS and his signature line in the book appears as "Hasen") in The Alter Ego Collection, and now that I'm rereading/reconsidering it, it doesn't rule him out after all. Here's the link to the Google book.
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Saturday, July 16, 2016


Herriman Saturday

December 1 1908 -- Looks like a big month for boxing, with a big highlight on the 26th, when Jack Johnson will fight a regular in the Los Angeles boxing rings, Tommy Burns. Except they won't be anywhere near LA -- the interracial title fight will be held in Australia.


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Friday, July 15, 2016


History of Newspaper Syndicates by Elmo Scott Watson: Chapter 9


The News Syndicates

Although "newspaper syndicates" and "press association" ("news services" or "news agencies") are commonly regarded as two very different types of journalistic enterprises, essentially their functions are the same. Both furnish a newspaper with reading matter which members of its staff are unable to supply. The newspaper syndicate provides feature material and the press association, news from outside the newspaper's territory. Thus the press association is in fact a syndicate, selling state, national and international news.

As stated in Chapter 1, the first example of newspaper syndication in the United States was the distribution of a news story. That was President John Tyler's annual message to congress, which Moses Yale Beach of the New York Sun sold in the form of a printed sheet to other newspapers in 1841. Moreover, the printed sheets supplied regularly by Atwood and Rublee of the Wisconsin State Journal, first to A. N. Kellogg of the Baraboo (Wis.) Republic in 1861 and later to other weeklies in the Badger state, contained news as well as "miscellany" (feature material). The same was true of the printed sheets sold by Cramer, Aikens and Cramer of the Milwaukee Evening Wisconsin. Very soon after the first independent syndicate was organized by Kellogg in Chicago its service included one column of news.

In 1873 the Chicago Newspaper Union began offering state news in its readyprint and from that time on the early syndicates supplying the country field included news matter in their services. In fact, the idea of a weekly "News Review," an interpretative news feature now so popular in many metropolitan papers, originated in the service of one of these syndicates—the Western Newspaper Union, which started it in 1914.

In 1883 the Kellogg Newspaper company inaugurated the practice of supplying daily papers with a daily news service in plates, which, according to a Kellogg advertisement, "furnished a complete summary, morning and evening, of the day and night telegraphic news, thus enabling the country daily to compete successfully with metropolitan papers in giving the important news of the day well digested and comprehensively edited and prepared for such service." Kellogg was able to do this, as was the American Press Association later, through a contract with the Associated Press to deliver copies of its daily report as received.

As both syndicates developed this feature of their service, their patrons often were able to print news from stereotype plates as soon, if not sooner, than member newspapers of the Associated Press who received the report by wire and had to set it in type. Objection to this practice by the member papers, because they were thus fostering competition with themselves, resulted in the Associated Press declining to renew this arrangement with both syndicates when their contracts expired. Thereafter the Kellogg company obtained a news service through the Chicago Inter-Ocean from the New York World and the American Press Association got its news reports from the New York Sun.

The Western Newspaper Union also maintained a daily plate service for a number of years and in 1913 supplemented this with a daily news picture mat service which continued until 1918. Suspended during the war, this was resumed in 1922 when a daily mat service of both pictures and reading matter was inaugurated and continued until 1924.

Thus it will be seen that the service of the feature syndicates overlapped that of the press associations and continues to do so, to some extent, even today. Similarly, as noted in previous chapters, the service of the press associations has overlapped that of the feature syndicates, a fact which has become especially noticeable during the last decade.

The history of press associations in their original role of news-gathering and news-distributing organizations began in New York about 1830 when the Association of Morning Newspapers was founded to maintain boats to meet incoming ships bringing European news. In 1849 the Harbor News Association (which Beach had helped establish the previous year) was reorganized and a little later the Telegraphic and General News Association was founded. In 1856 these two organizations were consolidated into the General News Association of the City of New York, which has been called the "Father of All Associated Presses."

Out of this association grew the New York Associated Press, founded in 1857 as a cooperative organization of New York papers, who pooled their news-gathering and news-distribution efforts during the Civil War. Later the New York Associated Press began selling (or "syndicating") its news reports to papers outside New York City and eventually a number of sectional news-gathering agencies, such as the New England Associated Press, the Southern Associated Press and the Western Associated Press, came into existence.

A rival national organization, the United Press, was established by the newspapers that were not affiliated with the New York Associated Press, but in 1892 it combined with the latter organization.1  Late in the same year the Associated Press was incorporated in Illinois, to succeed the Western Associated Press. Prominent in the new set-up were Victor F. Lawson, who in 1888 had bought the Chicago Daily News from his partner, Melville E. Stone.2  Through the influence of Lawson, Stone became general manager of the Associated Press in 1893 and this marked the beginning of the rise of the AP to its position of supremacy in the press association world.

One of the first things Stone did was to go to London to secure a contract with the Reuter Telegram Company, and through it, with the Havas Agency of Paris and the Wolff Agency of Berlin. The contract which the New York Associated Press had had with these agencies since 1865 expired on January 1, 1893. Stone's coup in obtaining this valuable European connection was a death blow to the United Press, which went into the hands of a receiver in 1897. Furthermore, under Stone's direction, the Associated Press in May, 1900, was incorporated under the Membership Corporation law in New York as a purely cooperative association that could declare no dividends and that shared the cost of operations among its members. By doing this it could limit its membership and serve only its members, despite the fact that the Illinois supreme court, in a test case, had ruled that the Associated Press was a common carrier and must furnish its news to any paper that was willing to pay for it. From that time on the Associated Press operated as a mutual news-gathering and news-distributing organization serving only its member papers who hold an AP franchise, in contrast to the other press associations who sell their news service to any newspaper.

In 1921 Stone retired as general manager of the Associated Press, although he remained as counsellor for it until his death in 1925. He was succeeded by Frederick Roy Martin, who in turn was succeeded by Kent Cooper in 1925. Under Cooper's regime a feature service, an outgrowth of a mail and obituary service which had been in operation for some years, was established on January 1, 1927. At present approximately 1,100 of the 1,350 members of the Associated Press use one or more divisions of the feature service.

The service is classified in five divisions: 1. the basic proof sheets carrying text matter—-close-to-the-news stories, set features, special articles on sports, science, agriculture, fashions, food, aviation, religion, finance, radio, etc.; 2. the feature service mats, supplying mats of all illustrations on the proof sheets, in addition to crossword puzzles, radio programs, style, interior decoration and house plan features going only to feature mat subscribers. (There are separate services of proofsheets and feature mats for morning and evening papers) ; 3. the daily news photo mats, prepared in five regional strategic centers and sent daily from these matting centers to members; 4. the comics and daily news cartoon budget comprising a three-column cartoon, five comic strips and four comic panels; 5. the state mat services, which supplement the daily news photo mats with subjects of primary interest to their states, are prepared by the state bureaus and sent only to members in the states where the pictures originated.

The Associated Press' latest expansion was Wirephoto, for the quick transmission of news pictures, which was inaugurated on January 1, 1935. It is now participated in by 55 member newspapers served with prints and by more than 500 through the news photo mat service. Altogether approximately 1,000 member newspapers participate in some manner in the picture service, which, like the feature service, is available only to newspapers which are members of the association.

During the time that Melville Stone was building up the Associated Press to its position of supremacy in the news field, a new competitor sprang up. This was the Scripps-McRae Press Association, organized in January, 1897, primarily to serve the newspapers in the Scripps-McRae League, although later it began selling its news to other papers.3  When the United Press went into receivership, the Publishers' Press Association was organized in New York City. The Scripps-McRae Association and the Publishers' Press entered into an arrangement by which the former covered the territory west of Pittsburgh and the latter east of that city.

In 1904 Scripps-McRae bought out the Publishers' Press and three years later the two associations were reorganized by E. W. Scripps as the United Press Associations, now popularly known as the United Press. At first the United Press maintained a news service only for evening and Sunday papers but later the United News was established in connection with the UP to serve morning papers. Both sold news to any newspapers willing to buy it, whether or not competing papers in the same field were already using it or were members of the Associated Press.

In 1912 Roy W. Howard, who had been New York manager of the Publishers' Press Association and later of the United Press Associations, became president and general manager of the United Press. Under his management the organization, especially during the war, gained rapidly in prestige and number of clients. It established bureaus in a number of European cities and soon grew into a world-wide organization.

From the beginning of the UP the importance of human interest had been stressed in its news and this was emphasized even more under Howard. “Interviews and features were to be played up in preference to mere routine. Signed articles, written by and from the angle of the men and women making the news, were introduced as a regular part of the day's report . . . . The United Press was working in intimate cooperation with Scripps services supplying features to the same journals; it took the lead in graphic news-feature stories, in news photography, in special signed correspondence, in covering distinct fields such as sports or politics, by particular assignments by special writers."4

These policies, inaugurated by Howard, were continued by William Waller Hawkins, who succeeded him in 1920, by Karl A. Bickel, who became president in 1923, and by Hugh Baillie, the present executive, who succeeded Bickel in 1934. Its service today includes an eight-hour daily leased wire news service, delivered by teletype; a "pony" service delivered by telephone; and the Red Letter, a daily mail service, which includes a full newspaper page of advance news, "canned cable," sport gossip, Washington letter and Paris fashions.

The history of the third of the leading press associations, or news syndicates, the International News Service, has been given in a previous chapter in its relation to the Hearst syndicates. One other such organization which combined both the news and feature characteristics deserves mention. That was the Consolidated Press Association.

In 1919 David Lawrence resigned as correspondent for the New York Evening Post and began syndicating his telegraphic Washington correspondence under the name of David Lawrence, Inc. The next year he reorganized and enlarged the service and began operating under the name of the Consolidated Press Association.

His was a service for evening and Sunday morning papers only and was sold to not more than one paper in a town to be used to supplement or substitute for parts of the regular news report obtained from press associations. Later by a combination with the Chicago Daily News, the distribution of the latter's extensive foreign correspondence, coming from 20 special correspondents abroad, was included in the service.

The value of these news stories lay largely in the prominence of the writers under whose by-lines they appeared and the announced object of the service was to "give the news behind the news," to furnish "a national perspective to the day's developments in sports, business, politics and economics" with interpretations by specialists in those fields. Subsequent additions included fashion news, radio activities and "big events" covered by specially-assigned staff men.

While headquarters remained at Washington, offices were established in New York, Chicago and San Francisco, all linked together by telegraph trunk lines which facilitated the speed of delivery to the papers purchasing the service. For papers not on the leased wire circuit, live news was relayed in the form of press messages and other matter, in which the element of time was not so important, was sent by mail from the nearest distributing center. This service continued until 1930, when it was absorbed by the North American Newspaper Alliance, another news feature organization (noted in a previous chapter) similar to the Associated Press in the mutual element of its operations.

In addition to these various co-operative press associations, represented today by the Associated Press and the North American Newspaper Alliance, and the news agencies or news services, represented by the United Press and the International News Service, various newspapers have "syndicated" their news to other papers. Among the first to do this were the New York World and the New York Sun, and later the Philadelphia Ledger. The list of those who do it now includes the New York Herald Tribune, New York Times, Chicago Tribune, Philadelphia Ledger, Baltimore Sun and Washington Post.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

1. This was the "old United Press," referred to in Chapter 6, and should not be confused with the "new United Press'' or United Press Associations, founded by E. W. Scripps in 1906 by consolidating the Scripps-McRae Association and the Publishers' Press association.

2. Stone was born in Hudson, Ill., in 1848. His first newspaper experience was as a reporter on the Chicago Tribune in 1864 and from 1871 to 1874 he edited several Chicago dailies. With a partner he established the Chicago Daily News in 1875 and the next year bought out the partner and sold that interest to Victor F. Lawson. Stone served as general manager of the AF for more than a quarter of a century. He died in 1925.

3. This league, the first chain of newspapers, was founded in 1895. It was headed by E. W. Scripps, who retired in 1908. Roy W. Howard became general manager in 1920 and two years later the name was changed to the Scripps-Howard Newspapers. Scripps died in 1926 at the age of seventy-one.

4. Rosewater, "History of Co-operative News Gathering in the United States."


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Thursday, July 14, 2016


Ink-Slinger Profiles by Alex Jay: Walter J. Enright


Walter Joseph Enright was born in Chicago, Illinois, on July 3, 1879, according to Who Was Who in America with World Notables, Volume V, 1969–1973.

In the 1880 U.S. Federal Census, Enright was the sixth of eight children born to John W. and Mary B. (Croghan), both Irish emigrants. His father was associated with wholesale liquor. The family resided in Chicago.

Enright was an artist in the 1900 census. He was in parents’ household and lived in Chicago at 715 Jackson Street. Who Was Who said Enright was educated in Chicago at the Armour Institute of Technology and studied at the Art Institute. Enright was listed in the American Art Annuals for 1907–1908 and 1909–1910.

According to the Cook County, Illinois, Marriage Index, at, Enright married Maginel Wright on October 26, 1904 in Oak Park, Illinois. Maginel was an illustrator and younger sister of architect Frank Lloyd Wright. Enright illustrated L. Frank Baum’s Father Goose’s Year Book: Quaint Quacks and Feathered Shafts for Mature Children. Maginel illustrated Laura Bancroft’s Policeman Bluejay. Both books were published in 1907. 

Enright’s home in the 1910 census was Manhattan, New York City at 561 West 141st Street. Enright and his wife had a two-year-old daughter, Elizabeth who would become an illustrator. Husband and wife were magazine illustrators. Who Was Who named some of the magazines with his art: Life, Judge, Scribner’s and Collier’s. He also contributed to Everybody’s Magazine.

Scribner’s 12/1920

Enright served during World War I as a first lieutenant. He was stationed in France from July 21, 1918 to May 5, 1919 and was honorably discharged May 23, 1919. His residence at the time was 20 West 10th Street in Manhattan.

Aerial Age Weekly noted Enright’s early service in its February 4, 1918 issue: “To be First Lieutenants, Aviation Section, Signal Reserve: …Walter J. Enright”, and the issued dated February 11, 1918: “Walter Joseph Enright appointed first lieutenant; report to Aviation Experimental School, Langley Field, Hampton, Va.”

The 1920 census recorded illustrator Enright, who lived alone, in Manhattan at 23 East 9th Street. Sometime after the census, Enright and his wife divorced.

Enright’s second marriage was reported in The Fourth Estate, July 8, 1922.

Walter J. Enright of the New York World staff and well known as an illustrator and cartoonist, and Miss Carroll McComas, actress, were married in New York this week. The bride’s mother, Alice Moore McComas, is the author of “Travel Sketches” and many short stories. Mr. Enright served through the war in the aviation service of the Second Army Corps with the rank of first lieutenant.
Enright and Carroll, an Albuquerque native, returned from Havana, Cuba, on March 13, 1922. Their home address was 18 Gramercy Park in Manhattan.

A passenger list said Enright, who was married, returned alone from Havana on January 3, 1925. His residence was 81 Irving Place, Manhattan.

American Newspaper Comics (2012) said Enright produced two series: Once Upon a Time ran from June 1, 1925 to August 5, 1926, and Here and Thereabouts which debuted May 12 and ended September 22, 1929.

On June 9, 1928, the New York Times reported Enright’s divorce.

After a visit to Bermuda, Enright arrived in New York on February 4, 1929. He was single and resided at 1 West 67th Street, New York City. Newspaper cartoonist Enright’s address was the same in the 1930 census.

Enright’s third marriage was to Brooklyn native, Rae. The couple returned from Bermuda on March 26, 1932. Their home was in New York City at 1 West 67th Street.

The 1940 census listed Enright and Rae in Delray Beach, Florida, at 201 South Swinton Avenue. In 1935 they resided in Brooklyn. Enright continued work as a newspaper cartoonist. At some point he adopted the pseudonym, W.J. Pat Enright which was used on his two books, Al Alligator and How He Learned to Play the Banjo (1947) and Sailor Jim’s Cave: A Mystery of Buried Treasure in Florida (1951).

Who Was Who said Enright was with the New York World from 1927 to 1930, and the New York American from 1930 to 1936. The New York Times said Enright was with the Miami Herald from 1933 to 1943, and the Palm Beach Post from 1943 to 1948.

The 1945 Florida state census recorded Enright and wife in Delray Beach on North Ocean Boulevard.

Enright passed away January 14, 1969, in Delray Beach, as reported by the New York Times, June 20.

—Alex Jay


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Wednesday, July 13, 2016


News of Yore 1960:The Ultimate 'Vertical Market' Cartoon

'Copter Cartoon Offered Free

(Editor & Publisher, December 10 1960)

A weekly comic panel, "'Copter Cartoons," is now offered newspapers free of charge by its originator, Owen Day, staff artist, Bell Helicopter Co.

The series first appeared in the company's news magazine, Bell News. Two years ago a selection of "'Copter Cartoons" was issued in booklet form. The May 17, 1959, edition of Parade Magazine featured four of the series in its cartoon section. A month ago, the Fort Worth (Tex.) Press began using the panel in its Sunday aviation page layout.

Noting the interest that has increasingly developed, the Bell company has underwritten the cost of producing the cartoon in order to make it available to newspapers at no cost, either in reproduction proof or mat form.

A sampling offer induced 15 newspapers to use the cartoon. The offer is now made nationally. The cartoons, although dealing with a helicopter as the main "character," have no bounds as to subjects. Use of the cartoons is limited to one paper in a given area.


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Tuesday, July 12, 2016


Ink-Slinger Profiles by Alex Jay: Hy Gage

Harry Frank “Hy” Gage was born in Hartford, Connecticut, on April 13, 1878, according to his World War II draft card and passenger lists from 1930 and 1934. Information posted at Lambiek Comiclopedia said, erroneously, that Gage was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Gage’s nickname, Hy, is the abbreviation for Harry and Henry.

In the 1880 U.S. Federal Census, Gage was the second of three children born to Frank, a bookkeeper, and Nancy, a Canadian. They resided in Hartford, Connecticut at 263 High Street. Gage’s father changed his job and moved the family.

Savannah, Nebraska was the home of the Gage family as recorded in the 1885 Nebraska state census. Gage’s father was a grain dealer.

Gage attended the University of Nebraska. His name was found in university catalogues from 1893 to 1895. Gage graduated in 1898. The Courier (Lincoln, Nebraska), October 1, 1898, noted Gage’s profession and plans.

Harry Gage, the cartoonist, is visiting Leonard H. Robbins at Princeton, N. J. He has been sailing on and fishing in the St. Lawrence. He will study drawing in Pratt institute, Brooklyn, this winter.
The 1900 census said Gage and Robbins, an editor, stayed in a boarding house in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania at 265 South 4th Street. 1901 and 1902 Philadelphia city directories listed Gage as an artist at 273 South 10th Street. He was a cartoonist, at 650 North 52nd Street, in the 1905 directory. The following two years Gage resided at 1411 Spruce Street. The artist’s address in 1908 was 420 South 15th Street.

American Newspaper Comics (2012) said Gage produced many comics from 1900 to 1930 for several newspapers. They are Breeches Boys (1900 to 1901); Mr. Billyuns (1902); Bub and Sis (1902); Bessie Busybody (1904); Strenuous White House Fun by the Roosevelt Kids (1904); Little Billy Penn and His Doggy Schuylkill (1906); Timothy Hay (1906); Mr. Grouch (1906 to 1911); Generous George (1906 to 1907); Mrs. Rummage the Bargain Fiend (1907 to 1917); What Dick Did, or How Mothers Worry (1907); Doctor Peach and Her Modern Methods (1908); Up in the Air with Hungry Halley (1910 to 1911); Mrs. De Style the Fashion Fiend (1911); Hungry Halley (1913 to 1914); Gay and Glum (1920 to 1922); and Miss Information (1924 to 1930).

Gage was a member of the Pen and Pencil Club of Philadelphia and was chosen as a delegate to the annual convention of the International League of Press Clubs at Atlantic City. Gage’s participation was mentioned in The Fourth Estate, June 3 and June 27, 1903.

Gage was a contributor to Bohemia: Official Publication of the International League of Press Clubs (1904). On and Off the Bread Wagon (1906) was illustrated by Gage. During 1910, Gage contributed articles and comics to Motor Boat.

Gage has not yet been found the 1910 census. In a 1912 directory, Gage lived at 253 South 13th Street. His residence, in 1916, was 1700 Pine Street.

The May 7, 1911 Sunday magazine in some newspapers, including the Courier-Journal (Louisville, Kentucky), Detroit Free Press and World-Herald (Omaha, Nebraska), carried Gage’s article, “Why Is a Comic Artist?” Gage wrote about himself and said:
…So I took a few weeks lessons from Cartoonist Briggs, and sent off a bunch of rot to the magazines. From that day to this my collection of rejection slips has increased by leaps and bounds.

The Philadelphia Academy of Fine Arts and the Pratt Institute of Brooklyn both tried to make a second Rembrandt out of me, but somehow it didn’t take. Under their influence I did attempt a serious work of art. When the critics saw it they said I must have been under the influence of—but we’ll let that pass. They were only jealous.
The American Stationer, August 12, 1916, wrote about using movies as a marketing tool. Gage’s cartoon, “The Dream That Woke ‘Old Fossil’ Up”, was discussed.

According to Cartoons Magazine, December 1917, Gage was one of five artists who drew the billboard over the Liberty loan headquarters.

On September 12, 1918, Gage signed his World War I draft card. Gage was married to Florence and they lived at 1701 Pine Street in Philadelphia. Gage, a cartoonist at the Bulletin, was described as medium height and slender guild with blue eyes and light-colored hair.

Gage’s address did not change in the 1920 census and was a self-employed artist.

Gage’s Kartoono combined animation and live action. It was discussed in Animation Journal, Fall 1994.

Other animated films show a live-action character who plays the part of "an animator" interacting with animated characters; these narratives often seem to comment on the profession of animation itself. In Hy Gage’s Kartoono (ca. 1922), an animator creates a creature that seeks his creator's destruction. The starving artist, Kartoono, practices his lightning sketches on an easel, drawing a hungry dragon that eats his meat and drinks his beer. The artist talks to his creation and confesses: “I’m Busted, Starving, Got Cold Feets. Now to get Busy. No Work, No Eats!”—as if Gage was crying in his own woes about the poverty that his chosen profession has brought to him.
The rest of the text is in Animation: Art and Industry (2009).

In the second half of the 1940s, Gage contributed Butch and Foxy to comic books

The 1930 and 1940 censuses said Philadelphian Gage was a cartoonist who resided at 2103 Chestnut Street. When Gage signed his World War II draft card, on April 27, 1942, he worked for the Evening Bulletin and also freelanced. His address was the same in the 1950 Philadelphia telephone book.

Gage passed away in November 1971, in New Jersey, according to the Social Security Death Index which said his last residence was Haddonfield, New Jersey.

—Alex Jay


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